An interoperable architecture of integrated electronic information system in theater

【Abstract】 Based on the analysis of the demand for integrated electronic information systems in future high-tech local wars, this paper discusses an architecture that realizes the interoperability of integrated electronic information systems.
Keywords: integrated electronic information system C4ISR architecture interworking function (IWF)

1 Introduction The rapid development of information technology and its application in the military field have led to a profound worldwide revolution in the military field that is based on information technology, centered on information superiority, and guided by high-tech weapons. Changes in the concept of war, the concept of victory and defeat, the concept of the battlefield, the concept of sovereignty, the mode of command, and the style of operations. The practice of the Gulf War and the Kosovo War shows that the future war will be a local war under high-tech conditions and an information war under nuclear deterrence. Compared with traditional wars, this style of war shows the characteristics of the information age. This feature comes down to the point that the future local wars under high-tech conditions will be joint operations in five dimensions: land, sea, air, space, and electromagnetic. You got the initiative on the battlefield. To adapt to this change, all countries are vigorously developing theater or regional integrated electronic information systems. In this paper, according to the needs of local wars for integrated electronic information systems and the classification of information under high-tech conditions in the future, this paper conducts a superficial study on the interoperable architecture of integrated electronic information systems.
2 Demand for electronic information systems in future high-tech local wars In the future, high-tech local wars will be joint operations involving all arms and services carried out in five dimensions: land, sea, air, space, and electromagnetic. In order to make the various services participating in the war unite and succeed, and to form an overall combat effectiveness, the following requirements are put forward for the electronic information system:
One is to integrate functions. The function integration is reflected in two aspects: large system function integration and equipment function integration. Large system function integration refers to the expansion and integration of the C3I system function to the C4ISR system function and cross-linking with the weapon system. The integration of equipment functions is the modularization of equipment, so that the system resources have redundancy, and the system has the ability to dynamically reconstruct.
The second is the integration of the three military systems. The integration of the three military systems includes the integration of strategies, campaigns, and tactical systems and the integration of systems of different arms and services. Integration makes it possible to interconnect, intercommunicate, and interoperate between different systems, and to achieve resource sharing, improve the system's mobility, survivability, and the flexibility of coordinated command between arms and services.
Third, information and information systems should be digitized and networked. Information digitization can integrate a variety of information, and it is also easy to compress bandwidth, facilitate real-time processing by the computer, and also improve anti-interference ability. Networking allows information flow and decision-making to proceed horizontally to meet the requirements of the five command modes of gradual, leapfrogging, centralized, decentralized and mixed.
Fourth, some businesses in reconnaissance, communications and navigation should be satelliteized.
Fifth, the battlefield space must be transparent. The acquisition of the right to information on the battlefield system must be achieved by making the battlefield space transparent to one's own side.
Sixth, the command and weapon system should be computerized. The transformation of command methods and means and the realization of remote precision strikes all depend on the high-speed operation of computers.
The most important point for the demand for electronic information systems in future high-tech local wars is to make electronic information systems comprehensive and integrated, that is, integrated electronic information systems.
3 The composition of the theater comprehensive electronic information system
3.1 Classification of theater information resources Theater information resources refer to the general term for all things that have a direct relationship (relevant information) and no direct relationship (non-relevant information) to combat operations. Due to the wide variety and different nature of theater information resources, in order to achieve the sharing and seamless transmission of theater information resources, it is necessary to classify theater information resources of high-tech local wars. According to the operational requirements of high-tech local wars, theater information resources can be classified as follows:
· According to the source of information, there are our information, information of neighboring troops and information of the enemy. Our information refers to: the battle group's battle plan, battle plan (pre-plan), request report to superiors, battle situation, operational command, logistics and support information for the main attack task; the battle group's force preparation for the main attack task Type, composition, quantity, combat deployment, combat objectives, combat capability, weapon configuration, etc. The information of friendly neighbors or battle groups serving as auxiliary offenses refers to: the type of troop establishment, the number of troops, and the deployment of troops; the type, quantity, combat capability, and combat objectives of weapon configurations. Enemy information refers to: the type, number, and organization of enemy forces; the type, number, and combat capabilities of weapon systems.
According to the information function, there is command information, which refers to command information by level, command information beyond the command level, air command information, sea command information, submarine command information; intelligence information refers to satellite information, radar information, and technical reconnaissance information And optical reconnaissance information, etc .; control and coordination information; target strike and combat effectiveness evaluation information; logistics support and technical support information.
According to the information attribute, there are operational environment and operational background information, including theater air, sea, social and civil conditions, theater meteorological information, theater geographic information, etc.
According to the types of information services, there are text information, data information, graphic information, image information, and voice information.
3.2 The composition of theater-wide integrated electronic information system According to the requirements of the theater for electronic information system, the integrated electronic information system is composed of the following ten sub-systems, namely theater command and control system, theater logistics support command center automation system, intelligence reconnaissance system, Early warning detection system, electronic warfare system, information warfare system, navigation system, military and civilian air traffic control system, theater information fusion center, theater integrated electronic information system communication network. The relationship between them is shown in Figure 1.

4 Theater Integrated Electronic Information System Interoperability Architecture According to the demand for military electronic information systems in future high-tech local wars and the development trend of electronic information systems themselves, theater integrated electronic information systems are broadband, integrated, and integrated electronic information systems , It can store, process and transmit sounds, images, data and text information related to the battlefield. According to the development trend of communication technology, the communication network of theater integrated electronic information system will use ATM technology. However, most existing systems use frame relay technology. In order to achieve a smooth transition between the existing system and the future system, this article mainly discusses Interoperability between ATM and Frame Relay networks.
Frame Relay (FR) technology was introduced in the early 1980s. Because of its simplicity, efficiency, economy, and long-term characteristics, it has developed rapidly since its inception. However, there are still many shortcomings in frame relay technology, and the characteristics of ATM technology just make up for the shortcomings of frame relay. There are two main ways of interworking between a Frame Relay (FR) network and an ATM network. One is that the ATM network serves as a relay transmission network for the frame relay network and provides sufficient relay bandwidth for frame relay. This method is called network Interworking. The other is the integration of frame relay technology and ATM technology. A network can provide both frame relay services and other services at the same time. This method is called service interworking.
4.1 Network Interworking Modes of Frame Relay (FR) Network and ATM Network Network interworking enables the frame relay information between frame relay terminals to be transmitted on the ATM network. In order to transmit Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC FR) services through the ATM network, the network must have FR / ATM interworking function (IWF). Figure 2 shows the network reference configuration and protocol stack for interworking between the Frame Relay (FR) network and the ATM network.

FR / ATM interworking function (IWF) conforms to ITU-T recommendation I. 555 and I. 365.1 requirements. On the ATM network side, the ATM layer complies with ITU-T recommendations I. 361; AAL5 (SAR and CPCS) conforms to ITU-T recommendation I. 363; Frame Relay Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (FR-SSCS) conforms to ITU-T Recommendation I. 365.1, Complete ITU-T recommendation I. The frame relay service function defined in 233.1; FR-SSCS-PDU conforms to ITU-T recommendation I. 363, with and Q. 922 the same structure. On the frame relay network side of IWF, the link layer completes ITU-T recommendation Q. 922 Core layer functions, providing ITU-T recommendations I. The frame relay service function defined in 233.1.
4.2 Service Interworking Modes of Frame Relay (FR) Network and ATM Network In FR / ATM service interworking, the two networks are connected by IWF, and the frame relay terminal or ATM terminal equipment does not need to know the terminal type of the other end. IWF completes all protocol conversion functions in two directions. FR / ATM business intercommunication reference configuration and protocol stack are shown in Figure 3.

Using ATM as the frame relay transmission network to realize the intercommunication between ATM and frame relay, the benefits are obvious, specifically reflected in the following points:
· Improve relay utilization;
· Reduce delay and delay variation;
· Optimize network and business management;
· Improve service quality (QoS);
· Greater bandwidth and network scalability.
5 Conclusion The progress and revolution in communication technology has provided a solid foundation for the construction of military electronic information systems. However, the application of new technologies can only follow the path of a smooth transition. Today, when ATM technology will become the mainstream, this article discusses the interoperability of existing frame relay networks and ATM networks based on military needs. I believe it will be of great benefit to the construction and research of theater-wide integrated electronic information systems.

1 Chi Shaoyou. Modern command and control communication intelligence (C3I) interworking architecture. Chengdu: University of Electronic Science and Technology Press, 1994
2 (US) Uyless Black. ATM network interworking technology. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, May 1998
3 Jiang Guangjie. System integration of digital battlefield. Beijing: People's Liberation Army Press, December 1999
4 Tong Zhipeng, Liu Xing. Integrated electronic information system. Beijing: National Defense Press, October 1999
5 Liang Zhenxing. The development trend of military electronic information systems in the early 21st century. Electronic Engineer, 2000, Issue 2

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